Company cultures have very specific features. Indeed, company culture can be characterized much like the personality of a person.
There are companies that are heavily market- or customer-oriented, or extroverted, and others that are more introverted. At the same time there are companies where values such as flexibility and spontaneity reign while others place more importance on order and stability. When combined, these two dimensions (intro- versus extroverted orientation, and flexibility versus stability) form the four basic types of company cultures.
IMP research has shown that top companies in particular are defined by an “entrepreneurial culture”.
- The clan culture is identified by a sense of belonging, loyalty, tradition and an atmosphere of familiarity. Strategic priorities here are the development of human resources, employee commitment, and ethical principles. This introverted orientation can contribute to slower reaction times to customer requirements and market factors.
- The hierarchy culture is identified by clear rules that lead to consistency, stability and smooth operations. The central features include standardization and formalization with management playing primarily an "administrative” role. This prevailing introversion and limited flexibility make changes difficult to implement and can even be considered as disruptive.
- The market culture emphasizes competitiveness and the achievement of goals. Market mechanisms dictate processes. Productivity, performance and competitive advantage are central priorities. These companies are heavily extroverted but also possess a strong orientation on efficiency. Innovations are therefore typically fairly limited in scope.
- The "entrepreneurial culture” is very extroverted in nature and emphasizes spontaneity, flexibility and dynamism. Innovation and growth are the central strategic priorities. It is therefore the culture with the most innovative capacity.